| Animal Testing Essay Good thesis writing Essay done for you

Today, the topic of ecology and nature is often a subject for discussion. Probably, very few people think about the process of production and release of cosmetic products, namely life bringing for the sake of beauty. It is not a human life, but a life of an innocent creature, an animal, which is meant here. It is not a secret that many companies use animals in testing of their products. It does not only concerns putting some cream on the skin of an animal and looking whether it reddens or not. Everything is much more difficult and crueler. A lot of things are learned experimentally in the world. Some scientists have managed to prove that experiments carried out by them are useful to the mankind. However, there are many cases, when scientists conduct an investigation using cruel methods, scoffing at animals, and practically reaching no results or benefits.

Investigation of Cruel Tests on Animals

Cruel tests on animals continue to exist, first of all, because many consumers are not familiar with this serious moral problem, and manufacturers are not interested in informing buyers about it. The participants of the movement for ceasing animal experiments often hear the question, “What are cosmetic tests for animals? It is simply ridiculous: rabbits are painted eyelashes, and rats are put on a make-up?”. When real information reaches consumers, they are shocked.

During the testing of cosmetics, cleaners and new mixtures, developed by the cosmetic industry, animals breathe in steams of substance, the concentration of which is so great that many of them die from poisoning. Drayz’s industrial testing of cosmetics is carried out in the following way: the tested substance is put on the eyes of rabbits, their heads are fixed with a special collar, and they spend 21 days in such a position. Animals cannot rub their eyes, which are corroded by the preparation, with a paw. The test often comes to an end, when the cornea grows turbid, and the eye perishes. Another known industrial test for the determination of toxicity consists in the following: a group of animals are given an increasing dose of the examined substance, and the task of an experimenter is to define a dose, which kills 50% of animals for a determined time. The substance is usually injected into an organism of an animal by means of a tube inserted through the gullet in the stomach.

Vivisection in the Cosmetic Industry

Vivisection is considered to be monstrous and often senseless. Cosmetic testing is not carried out for the sake of rescuing a human life, but for the sake of human beauty. There are many experiences on rabbits, when solutions, which are applied in shampoos, mascaras for eyelashes, household chemicals, are poured in their eyes, and then, it is observed in how many hours or days this chemical will corrode these experimental creatures. The same senseless experiences are carried out in medical schools. Why is it necessary to drip acid on a frog, if every school student can predict the reaction of the frog without any experience? In the educational process, there is a training to let animals bleed, when it is necessary to sacrifice an innocent being. It influences the career of a person. Cruelty deprives people of humanity. Medical students face cruelty at the first year of studying. Statistically, science loses a great number of experts because of an ethical aspect. Those, who remain, get ac|ed to irresponsibility and cruelty. A person can do everything with an animal without any control.

Different scientists adhere to various points of view on the problem. According to Professor Cohen, a famous virologist of the American Academy of Sciences, three quarters of all animal experiments can be replace in laboratories by using cells right now. On the other hand, professor Fingerton notes that researches on the highest nervous activity and behavior of people and animals cannot be replaced yet.

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About 2 million animals are objects of experiments in Canada, 7 million – in France, 17 million – in the USA, and about 800 million – worldwide (Sharpe, 1988). 90 % of these animals are rats, mice, fish or birds. 85,5 % of various animal species serve for researches, 9,5 % – for testing of products, and 5 % – for education (Sharpe, 1988). A large number of animals become science victims, in particular cats, dogs, primacies, frogs, insects, birds, hares, calves and their mothers, pigs, hamsters, and others. From all areas of animal testing, the experiments connected with cosmetics are a sphere, where mankind even cannot justify itself with the need of researches for the sake of life preservation and human health, as animals are sacrificed only for the sake of a human whim. For this reason, the search for alternatives was concentrated around cosmetic tests, though alternative models for researches on all spheres are being offered now.

An animal is not an ideal sample for a research on human diseases. The assumption that a rat is a tiny human being is an error and a scientific deception. A person and an animal have some common anatomic and physiological characteristics, but they react differently to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The tablet of aspirin can kill a cat and cause malignant tumors in a mouse. Penicillin kills Indian pigs. Arsenic does not influence monkeys and hens. Morfin calms people, but has no influence on cats and horses. Insulin causes malformations in hens, hares and mice (Sharpe, 1988). Many diseases, which kill people, do not influence animals, for example, the AIDS. Human cancer is different from the animal one, and vise verse, animals’ cancer tumors cannot develop for 20 years. Tuberculosis of people is an absolutely different type than the one caused artificially in animals. The metabolism of people and animals occurs differently. People are 60 times more sensitive to thalidomide, a sedative, prescribed to pregnant women, than mice, 100 times more sensitive than rats, 200 times than dogs and 700 times than hamsters (Reinhardt, 1994). Therefore, it is clear that when it is beneficial to them, scientists assume that experiments on animals can never be completely extrapolated on people. Pursued by the law on harmful medicines (such as thalidomide) or on toxic products, experimenters remember at once this fundamental difference between people and animals. Thus, why is it necessary to continue conducting experiments, if they are not authentic initially? Iodine and penicillin are good examples of drugs developed without animal experiments. The basic progress in many areas of medicine is connected with the clinical supervision of patients, sanitary actions, unpredicted inventions and epidemiology.

Humane Ways of Carrying Out Medical and Cosmetic Experiments

For real progress in medicine, experiences on animals are not necessary. The USA, the biggest consumer of laboratory animals in the world, is not considered the country with the healthiest nation (Reinhardt, 1994). According to their life expectancy, Americans hold only the seventeenth place in a rating of all countries. Mankind annually sacrifices more than 100 million experimental animals for the sake of health and beauty. Is it possible morally to justify such a “sacrifice” at the present time? Today there are also some humane ways of carrying out medical and cosmetic experiments. Professors Farnswort and Petsuto of the pharmacological faculty of the University of Illinois declared that there were enough methods elaborated for the toxicity determination of preparations. The matter concerned enzymes, bactericidal creatures, cells and tissues of a person (received from the placenta after childbirth or biopsy), structures developed by a program, the organization of donor banks, and others. For example, in the Quebec University, there is the program created to simulate a frog (Reinhardt, 1994). This animal reacted to experiments in the same way as a live one. Changes in consciousness and nonviolent medicine are alternatives to vivisection. Moreover, there are authentic methods available for testing medicines or products of national consumption. A large number of scientists consider such methods more convincing than experiments on animals.

Therefore, it is unethical to conduct tests on animals, even if it helps save human lives. Experiments can be good for science and for people, but they should be limited and controlled. When a dog is sewed two heads, it is not an ethical scientific experiment, but a kind of sadism. Animals should be protected, and many experiments are necessary, but it does not oblige one to take a positive view of them. Really, drugs can be tried on people, for example, on prisoners for life, incurably or mentally sick. It is also possible to make experiments on rats, but never on dogs! The latter case is all the same that on a one-year-old child, who understands everything, but can do nothing with this sadism. Though the international norms of carrying out experiments on animals have already existed for many years (they define the rules of animal living and feeding, indispensable use of anesthesia, and others), many scientists consider that such tests in many respects proceed only as a bad tradition. Therefore, it is necessary to educate the ethic relation of people to animals. The vivisection should also be replaced by alternative methods, so it needs some financing from the government.