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“Machiavelli’s Realism.”

Although there is a commonly recognized and globally acknowledged opinion that the works of one of the most outstanding Italian philosophers and thinkers of the Middle Ages should be understood equally and identically by all scientific and popular communities, the article, written by the scholar Mindle Grant provides a completely different understating of this historical personality and his art legacy.

The idea advocated by the author has changed my personal perception of the associations brought to my mind, when the name Machiavelli is pronounced. I used to associate this singular and outstanding thinker with the political science, in particular with his treatise of incomparable historical importance “the Statesman”. I used to think that the works of Machiavelli and all his other accomplishments have been exerted to simplify the mundane work of the statesmen of Italy and to formulate the practical guidelines for the effective governance. In other words, it is internally ingrained myth that the works, composed by Machiavelli and his associates were merely a set of advices, rules and regulations and recommendations, procured to the leaders of the Middle Ages Italian cities.

However, after the careful examination of this article, it became evident that the author detects the cultural and art importance of the works of Machiavelli. Bearing in mind the text that all his works have been done from the standpoints of the practicing scientist, his works are even more unique. Personally I am firmly convinced that the cultural relevance of the discussed author is manifested through the lexical abundance and the ways he depicts the life of Italy of those days. It is, in fact, one of the most expressive demonstrations on what is realism and how it should be outlined for the target audience.

“Structural Realism after the Cold War.”.

The article by professor Kenneth serves as guide to understanding of the cultural revolutionary changes that took place after the cold war was over and the era of realism, emerged on the cultural horizon of the humankind. My principal personal reflection on the discussed article is the change in the attitude towards the understanding of what is known as realism. I really conceived the character of the changes that have been caused by the outbreak and the development of the Cold War and the impact, exercised by those changes.

However, my opinion diverges from the viewpoint of the author, who vigorously attempts to accentuate the fact that structural changes occur to the approach that the realism is perceived and practiced by the national and international scholars and by the laymen as well. In accordance with the opinion of the author, whose main message is that the structural changes of realism have been caused by the Cold War is considerably unfounded. To be more exact the attempt of the author to substantiate the doctrine that the substantial transmutations took place, does seem to be very exaggerated by the author. I consider that realism can not be modified at all, because, indeed, realism is the way the particularities and the objects of the natural ambience and the technical objects are expressed. Realism is the same as photography, except the fact that the personal attitude of the author is integrated to the object of the art, created under the rules of realism. And the author in his turn speculates that the entire concept of realism has been substantially modified by the escalation of the Cold War. My firm opinion is that, whatever historical changes take place, the concept of realism and the way it is practiced remain the same.

“Modernism without Modernity: The Rise of Modernist Architecture in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina, 1890-1940”.

While the article depicts in detail, which significant changes occurred to the concept of realism, it still remains doubtful that these changes really occurred to it. The main viewpoint of the author is that whilst the development of the Latin America was underway and the building traditions of Mexico, Brazil and Argentina were under way, the development of the modernism in its turn was artificially hampered by the creators of the architecture style. Moreover, the stable opinion of the author is that the architecture approach to the practice of the modernism building style, which commenced at the dawn of the 20th century, should be highlighted, because, in contrast to the majority of the European and the majority of the United States and the other North America modernism practitioners, the modernism building approach was wrongfully interpreted. To be more exact, the way it is practiced was the same as it was practiced one hundred years ago, when all these countries were still developing states and the architecture traditions of the countries were merely at the embryonic state.

However, having visited those countries in person, and having contemplated the objects of Mexican, Brazilian and Argentinian objects of the art in person, it has become evident for me that the way they were constructed, do possess the elements of the contemporary modernism and in contrast to the opinion, expressed by the author, the constructed objects have been with due accentuation of the modern impact to the development of Modernism building culture. For instance, the building of the mayor’s edifice of the city of Mexico, which has been built fifty years ago, is less gnarly, than the building standards of the traditional modernism dictate it to be.

“Contemporary Art and Contemporaneity.”.

Overall, this article has been confirmed by steadfast opinion that the development of the contemporary is permanently and substantially influenced by the technological and scientific accomplishments. To be more exact the author deliberately highlights the fact that, with the advent of the industrial development of the countries, it is becoming evident that the shapes of the objects of the art are floating to simplification.

However, my firm opinion is that the postulate, drawn by the author, that the simplification is too excessive nowadays, is unfounded and baseless. In particular, the author accentuates the fact that, with the rapid development of the technically oriented objects, the need to simplify is becoming more and more topical for the creators of the contemporary art.

Another issue, which caused a significant portion of my criticism, is that the author vigorously attempts to stress the fact, that those, who create the art, create it with a considerable portion of inconsistency with the technological and scientific achievements of the humankind. Whilst the world squarely dictates that everything shouldl be less shapeless, the creators of the art do their best to make it as acute as possible. I am firmly convinced that the way, the contemporary art develops, entirely and, more important, accurately reflects the genuine state of events. In other words, my conviction is that the contemporary art cannot be confined to specific rules and regulations, which govern the development of the art, but vice versa the art is the method, with the help of which everything is created. Hereby, I find this statement of the author considerably objectionable.

“Art in the Information Age: Technology and Conceptual Art.”

Although there is a commonly recognized and globally acknowledged viewpoint that the works of one of the most outstanding global philosophers and thinkers of the Modern Ages should be understood equally and identically by all scientific and popular communities, the article, written by the scholar Shanken Edward, provides a completely different comprehension of how the technology and the science affect the development of the art.

The idea, advocated by the author, has changed my personal perception of the associations, brought to my mind, when the word “the collocation modern art” is said .I used to associate these words as primarily channeled, to convey the meaning, what is understood under the concept of “global art”. I used to think that the works of contemporary arts have been devised to serve the needs of the community, but the authors attempt and succeed to prove that the modern composition of the objects of art are necessarily and integrally connected with the development of science and technology.

However, after the careful examination of this article, it became evident that the author detects the cultural and art importance of the works of Machiavelli. Bearing in mind the text that all his works have been done from the standpoints of the practicing scientist, his works are even more unique. Personally I am firmly convinced, that the cultural relevance of the discussed author is manifested through the lexical abundance and the ways, he depicts the life of Italy of those days. It is in fact one of the most expressive demonstration on what is understood under the concept of informational impact and how it should be outlined for the target audience.

“Catedral / Cathedral.”.

The article by professors Rafael and Estrada serves as guide to understanding of the cultural revolutionary changes that took place after the cathedral cultural approach was initiated and the era of symbolism emerged on the cultural horizon of the humankind. My principal personal reflection of the discussed article is the change in the attitude towards the understanding of what is known as symbolism. I fully conceived the nature of symbolism, which substantially differs from the rest.

However, my opinion diverges from the viewpoint of the authors, who fervently attempts to accentuate the fact that structural changes occur to the approach, symbolism is perceived and practiced by the national and international practitioners and by those, who are interested in arts. In accordance with the opinion of the author, whose main message is that the structural changes of symbolism is misinterpreted nowadays and that the practice of symbolism have deviated from the standards, elaborated by the classics of this trend. To be more exact the attempt of the author to substantiate the doctrine that the substantial transmutations took place, does seem to be very exaggerated by the author. I consider that symbolism cannot be modified at all, and therefore the deviations are not possible because, indeed, realism is the way the particularities and the objects of the natural ambience and the technical objects are expressed. Realism is the same as photography, except the fact that the personal attitude of the author is integrated to the object of the art, created under the rules of realism. And the author in his turn speculates that the entire concept of realism has been substantially modified by the escalation of the Cold War. My firm opinion is that, whatever historical changes take place, the concept of symbolism and the way it is practiced, remain the same.